Ultrasound II

This 32-hour course is designed to meet the intent of SNT-TC-1A and is in accordance with ISO 18436-8.

Students successfully completing this course are familiar with the scope and limitations of Airborne/Structure Borne Ultrasonic Inspection, are able to set up and calibrate equipment, interpret and evaluate results with respect to applicable codes, standards, and specifications, and organize and report inspection results.

Course content consists of advanced theory, inspection logistics, data collection, data and sound analysis, writing procedures, and generating reports. A General, Specific, and Practical test is given at the end of the course.

Individuals classified as category II are required to be qualified to perform and/or direct ultrasound analysis according to established and recognized procedures, and are aware of the limitations of the ultrasound method.


Personnel classified as category II shall be able to:

  1. select the appropriate ultrasound measurement technique and understand its limitations;
  2. specify the appropriate hardware and software;
  3. set up and verify equipment settings;
  4. apply ultrasound theory and techniques where no procedures exist;
  5. measure and perform diagnosis of ultrasound signals inclusive of amplitude, frequency, and time domain analysis;
  6. classify and evaluate the test results (including acceptance tests) in accordance with applicable codes, standards, specifications, and procedures;
  7. prepare reports on equipment condition fault diagnoses, recommend appropriate corrective actions, and comment on effectiveness of repairs;
  8. provide technical direction to ultrasound monitoring personnel at category I;
  9. be aware of the use of alternative or supplementary condition monitoring (CM) technologies

Principles of ultrasound

  • Acoustic impedance and its influence on propagation and attenuation
  • How friction, turbulence, and impacting produce ultrasound and where they apply
  • Understanding the properties of the decibel

Generic equipment knowledge

  • Instrument operation and function
  • Airborne sensors
  • Structure-borne sensors
  • Heterodyne principle and application
  • Sensitivity validation

Data acquisition in ultrasound

  • Principles of data acquisition
  • Sensor positioning
  • Competing ultrasound and shielding techniques
  • Measurement of ultrasound
  • Capturing time domain and spectrum signals for analysis

Data storage and management

  • Developing and using a database
  • Managing stored data
  • Disposition of anomalies

Condition monitoring principles

  • What other technologies are there?
  • Acceptance testing
  • Benchmarking

Applications to machine systems

  • Leak detection
  • Valve inspection to identify faults
  • Steam traps
  • Electrical inspection
  • Hydraulic systems inspection
  • On-condition bearing lubrication¬†
  • Bearing defect detection
  • Slow speed bearing inspection
  • Gearing inspection
  • Pump inspection - cavitation
  • Motor inspection and the effect of variable speed drives

Severity determination

  • Setting up decibel alarms
  • Trending decibels
  • Statistical alarm creation
  • Time signal analysis
  • Spectrum analysis
  • Case studies
  • Diagnosis and prognosis

Program implementation

  • Routine inspection considerations
  • Routine management
  • Report structuring
  • Corrective action for alarm incidences

Reporting and corrective action

  • Key information needed
  • Recommending corrective action
  • Tracking corrective action outcome

Personal safety

  • Personal Safety